Anxiety is defined as nervousness, apprehension, and self-doubt that may or may not be associated with real-life stressors. Everyone experiences some level of anxiety periodically, but when feelings of dread and worry are unfocused, overwhelming, recurring, and not directly linked to stressful events, anxiety can leave a person severely impaired.
Symptoms, Signs, and Related Conditions
Anxiety symptoms include obtrusive, obsessive, worried thoughts, confusion and difficulty concentrating, pacing or restlessness, irritability, frustration, and despair. A person with anxiety may feel tense, with uncomfortable physical sensations such as trembling, sweating, a racing heartbeat, nausea, and difficulty breathing. The severe and sudden onset of such symptoms is often indicative of a panic attack. Anxiety can also lead to headaches, insomnia, digestive problems, and lightheadedness. Anxiety is at the root of many mental health conditions, including panic attacks and phobias, and it is often directly correlated with other conditions, such as obsessions and compulsions, posttraumatic stress, and depression. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fifth Edition (DSM), lists the following mental health issues as anxiety disorders:
How Does Anxiety Develop?
Anxiety, not unlike the fight, flight, or freeze response, is a survival mechanism that allows people to protect themselves in order to avoid suffering, but sometimes a person repeatedly and unnecessarily experiences extreme levels of the fear and worry associated with anxiety and feels helpless to alleviate the symptoms.
A person’s predisposition toward anxiety is based both in biology and environment. In other words, anxious behaviors may be inherited, learned, or both. For example, research demonstrates that anxious children are likely born to anxious parents, but those parents may also model anxious tendencies, such as avoiding or fearing potential threats, that then instill the same fear and avoidant behaviors in their children. Anxiety can also develop as a result of unresolved trauma that leaves a person in a heightened physiological state of arousal; when this is the case, certain experiences may reactivate the old trauma, as is common for people experiencing posttraumatic stress (PTSD).
Because anxiety can interfere with relationships, sleeping patterns, eating habits, work, school, and routine activities, anxiety is one of the most common reasons people seek therapy, and effective therapy can significantly reduce or eliminate symptoms associated with anxiety in a relatively short time, allowing a person to resume regular activities and regain a sense of control. The type of therapy that is most often recommended for the treatment of anxiety due to its demonstrated effectiveness is cognitive behavioral therapy, although most forms of therapy are well suited to addressing anxiety.
Rather than treating symptoms alone, as medications do, psychotherapy aims to identify and address the source of the anxiety. The self-reflective process of therapy helps people to understand, unravel, and transform anxiety and learn self-soothing techniques to use if anxiety flares up again. As therapist and client, we will collaborate on a treatment plan, which may include other therapy treatments and lifestyle adjustments to help relieve anxiety such as meditation, stress-management and relaxation techniques, self-care, and exercise.